Contents of past issues:

Articles in Issue 23, September 2017:

Multi-sensory design

Carol Raithatha discusses recent advances in our understanding of the effects of multi-sensory perception on consumer preferences and considers the impact of the sensory modalities on flavour appreciation.

The changing consumer

We look at demographic and generational changes in Western society in the foods we consume and the format and occasions on which we consume them.

The pulling power of protein

This article explores consumer aspirations towards a high protein diet and the likely consequences for the food and flavour industries.

The cult of chilli – implications for health

We investigate the properties and potential health benefits of the capsaicinoids, the compounds responsible for the fierce heat of chillies.

Renaissance of sour beers

The current enthusiasm for sour beers is explored along with the potential for the flavour industry to capitalise on opportunities related to sour flavours.

Take the bitter with the sweet

This article investigates some of the patented discoveries over the past few decades identifying compounds that block or reduce bitter taste. It covers a number of naturally occurring flavonoid compounds that are capable of blocking bitterness and the discovery of several synthetic compounds resulting from biochemical screening against human taste cells.

Articles in Issue 22, June 2017:

White tea – a new ‘super food’?

White tea contains more polyphenols, the powerful anti-oxidants associated with fighting cancer, than any other type of tea. We investigate the benefits of fine white teas from the perspectives of both the connoisseur of tea flavour and the health-conscious consumer.

The Importance of Flavour Innovation

David Turner of Mintel explains why European consumers remain highly excited about new flavours.

Optimising Natural Sweetness

Understanding the temporal profiles of sweeteners is key to formulating a quality sweetener system. Strategies for enhancing the quality of the sweet taste of stevia are considered together with other new developments in the natural sweetener field.

Substituting Fats in Foods – an Update

We address some of the more recent developments in the field of fat substitution and the need for formulating low fat foods with fat replacers and fat-soluble flavours.

Alkamides on the Union List

This article explores the unusual organoleptic properties of the alkamides on the Union List, which produce a range of sensations in the mouth.

Flavour Company Developments 2016-17

The annual Flavour Horizons review of flavour and sweetener company developments in the last 12 months revealed a dramatic increase in investment in new technical and production facilities worldwide. We review acquisitions, new facilities and collaborations in the industry.

Articles in Issue 21, March 2017:

Super Spice – Ginger

Dave Baines investigates the phytochemicals in ginger and their role in providing health benefits. He compares the structures of the active compounds in long pepper, turmeric and ginger to shed light on why these compounds are acting as the guardians of our health.

Advances in Encapsulation Technology

Craig Duckham of CD R&D Consultancy Services reviews the latest advances in micro- and nano-encapsulation and their application to food flavours and flavouring ingredients.

Salt Taste Enhancement in Food

Ralf G. Berger of the University of Hannover summarises recent work on the production of L-arginyl dipeptides and lignans for use as salt taste enhancers.

Individual Taste Trends

Lisa Methven of the University of Reading discusses the extent to which taste perception varies between people and considers whether differences in perception and liking are intrinsically linked.

Flavour Patent Developments in 2016

Patenting activity provides a window on the research and development underway within companies and offers an alternative view of market research by showing where the flavour industry is investing in future taste trends. Melanie Brown reviews flavour and ingredient patenting in 2016.

There May be Trouble Ahead 

Two very recent research reports have added to the growing weight of evidence that vaping flavours can have a detrimental effect on health. Dave Baines provides an update on the use of flavourings in e-cigarettes.

Highlights of the Amsterdam FlavourTalk Exhibition and Conference 2017

Carol Raithatha was a newcomer to the FlavourTalk Raw Materials Exhibition this year; she describes her first impressions. Dave Baines rounds up the 2017 FlavourTalk Raw Materials Exhibition in Amsterdam, identifying the materials from each exhibitor that were of greatest interest during the day.

Articles in Issue 20, December 2016:

Centres of Excellence: New Green Chemistry Facility Offers CO2 Extraction for Flavours

Suprex is a new venture in Caernarfon, North Wales, set up to offer supercritical CO2 extraction expertise and facilities. We review its technologies, research facilities and processing plant capabilities for flavour extraction.

Novel Technologies for Natural Flavour Production

A desire to move to cleaner and greener methods of extracting natural flavouring preparations has led to the emergence of a range of novel processing technologies. Ray Marriott of Suprex discusses the latest physical and biological processing technologies for flavour production and extraction.

Flavours of Australasia – Markets and Opportunities

Due to its distinctive biota and climate, the Australasia region has the potential to unlock exciting, new, natural flavours. Flavour Horizons has surveyed flavour manufacturers in the region and investigated opportunities for new and improved flavours from indigenous plants.

Update on the Status of the Union List

The Union List of permitted flavouring substances is a work in progress, which will come into force as part of EU Regulation 1334/2008 on 22nd April 2018. We provide a thorough review of the current status of this list and its impact on flavour producers and formulators.

Sensory Highlights from Food Matters Live 2016

Foods for the elderly, salt reduction in foods and insect protein were all on the menu at Food Matters Live in London in November.

Articles in Issue 19, September 2016:

Making it Real – Improving Ecological Validity of Sensory and Consumer Testing

Sensory testing has become a valuable tool for most flavour and food and drink manufacturers, but how well do results obtained in controlled settings measure what is experienced in real life?

Super Spice – Turmeric

Turmeric is commonly used in Ayurveda medicine, where its application can be documented back to 3000 BC. We examine the growing evidence that the main component of turmeric, curcumin, possesses neuroprotective and cognitive-enhancing properties as well as a number of other health benefits.

Sesquiterpenes and their Use in Flavourings: Part 2

Sesquiterpenes have an important role in flavourings. The second part of our review looks at the availability of fused bicyclic and fused tricyclic sesquiterpenoids of relevance to the flavour industry.

Key Beverage Trends in the Asia Pacific Region

This article discusses the trends that are gaining momentum across the beverage market in Asia and being taken on board by manufacturers.

2016 Flavour Trends in the US and Europe

We examine the 2016 trends in consumer food and flavour preferences and investigate the ways in which the flavour industry is responding to an increasingly complex array of consumer demands.

Highlights from the 11th Wartburg Symposium on Flavour Chemistry & Biology

We review highlights from the Wartburg Symposium, a leading forum for discussion of advances and emerging technologies at the intersection of odour/taste chemistry and sensory science with biology, neurophysiology, nutrition, genetics, biotechnology and advanced imaging technologies.

Articles in Issue 18, June 2016…

Super Spice – Combating Cancer

Only recently have scientists had the tools to be able to investigate the long held myths behind Aruveda medicine. New research has led to some extraordinary discoveries about the potential use of long pepper in the treatment and prevention of cancer.

Sesquiterpenes and their Use in Flavourings: Part 1

This article looks at the important role sesquiterpenes play in flavourings and reviews their availability and applications in the flavour industry. Part 1 covers the acyclic and monocyclic sesquiterpenes.

An Evaluation of Vanilla Flavour and Curing

Vanilla beans and extracts are among the most popular and expensive materials used in the flavour and perfumery world. Flavour, both aroma and taste/mouth-feel, arises almost entirely through the practice of vanilla curing. This review provides a broad brushstroke of the key areas in vanilla processing and curing and their impact on flavour.

FlavourTalk returns to Singapore with Another Successful Exhibition and Conference

A second FlavourTalk event was held on 26th-27th April 2016 combining a flavour raw materials exhibition and a conference. This article features the flavouring materials that were reported by exhibitors to be of greatest interest during the exhibition.

Flavour Company Developments 2015-16

Flavour Horizons reviews flavour and sweetener company activities in acquisitions, expansion of facilities and partnerships during the last 12 months.

Articles in Issue 17, March 2016...

Flavourings for E-cigarettes – See you in Court?

This article reviews the issues associated with e-cigarette flavourings and the potential minefield of litigation that could lie ahead.

Seaweed – the New Kale

Seaweeds have been attracting attention as new ‘superfoods’ because of their high nutrient density and rich content of minerals, vitamins and fibre. We investigate their health benefits and potential contribution to flavour.

The Nutritional Consequences of Substituting Fats

Consumer aspirations are key drivers for the development of nutritionally modified foods. We review strategies for reducing fat content in foods and their effect on product flavour and acceptability.

The Nutritional Consequences of Substituting Sugars

Creating sugar-free and reduced calorie products are quite different objectives and require different marketing positions as well as technical solutions. We discuss the functions of sugars in foods and beverages and approaches to sugar replacement in different categories.

A New Kokumi Compound on the Union List        

A new kokumi flavouring substance authorised for inclusion on the Union List in 2016 offers some very interesting flavour enhancement properties.

Flavour Patent Developments in 2015

A Flavour Horizons patent review for 2015 reveals the companies most active in flavour and taste patenting and the different technologies and applications for flavour systems that have been patented.

Issue 16, December 2015...

He Smells Apple – She Smells Golden Delicious: Gender Differences in Flavour Perception Do men and women have the same perceptions and abilities when it comes to flavour evaluation?  Anecdotal evidence and opinion points towards women being the more sensitive gender. But is this really the case? Carol Raithatha explores this fascinating question.

Red Meat, Cancer and Thermal Process Flavourings The recent announcement from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) that red meat is probably a carcinogen sent the popular press into a reporting frenzy. We investigate the scientific evidence behind this conclusion and the consequences for thermal process flavours that simulate meat.

Multisensory Integration Multisensory integration, the study of how information from the different sensory modalities, such as sight, sound, touch, smell and taste, may be integrated by the nervous system, is attracting increasing attention due to its influence on our sensory choices. We explore some of the latest research in this field.

The Ageing Palate Nutritional well-being is now recognised as an important factor in successful ageing. The development of highly appealing nutritious foods for the older population will not only open a new and lucrative market for food producers, but will also reduce the demands made on health care systems as fewer people will suffer from nutrition related illnesses.

Highlights from Food Matters Live 2015, London We review some of the more interesting developments and innovations presented at Food Matters Live that are of potential interest to the flavour industry.

Flavouring Properties of New Substances on the Union List – Part 7 We present the seventh and final review of the flavouring properties and uses of substances added to the Union List shortly before its publication two years ago – the ‘newly notified substances’. The new additions considerably change the scope and the extent to which flavouring substances can be used to flavour consumer products and represent new challenges for the flavourist.

The seven reports will be combined into a compendium and offered as a single report on the Flavour Horizons website.  All enquiries:

Issue 15, September 2015…

Time for Tea As consumers become more label conscious and reject artificial ingredients, tea, with its all-natural positioning, zero calorie content and wide range of flavours, is one of the few beverages that can offer health and wellness benefits.

Sensing Taste in the Gut Although we usually associate taste with receptors on the tongue, recent research has shown that there are also taste receptors in the gut and pancreas as well as other organs in the body. We review the latest discoveries in this field.

Further Highlights from the Weurman Symposium Following on from our review in the Spring Issue of Flavour Horizons of new sulphur compounds described at the Weurman Symposium (Cambridge, 2014) we investigate some of the other interesting discoveries presented at the Symposium including taste modifying compounds and flavour volatiles of commercial relevance.

Yogurt, Yoghurt or Yoghourt Yogurt is a unique, traditional food which finds global acceptance in a range of different forms.  We investigate the health benefits and flavour characteristics of yoghurt that make it suitable for a wide range of diets.

Safety of Herbs and Spices Although herbs and spices have many health benefits as well as antimicrobial properties, on occasion they can also be the cause of foodborne illness due to contamination with pathogenic microorganisms or allergenic compounds. We explore recent contamination and adulteration incidents and the strategies being adopted to tackle this problem.

Flavouring Properties of New Substances on the Union List – Part 6 We continue our review of the flavouring properties and uses of substances added to the Union List shortly before its publication two years ago – the ‘newly notified substances’.

Issue 14, June 2015…

Centres of Excellence: Clinical Nutrition Research Centre, Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences The Clinical Nutritional Research Centre, a joint initiative between the Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences and the National University of Singapore School of Medicine, was set up in 2011 as Singapore’s first dedicated academic centre for clinical nutrition. It takes an integrated approach to whole body nutrition, combining the role of food and food ingredients in the management of obesity, diabetes and ageing with studies on understanding the Asian phenotype.

Kokumi Update The science of kokumi and the exploitation of kokumi compounds in the food supply are advancing rapidly and this article reviews the latest state of play concerning one group of kokumi compounds: ɣ-glutamyl peptides.

Sweetness and Sweeteners in Flavours Sweetness is a part of every food system and a must for flavour appreciation. This article discusses the application and regulation of a range of sweet materials, including synthetic materials and natural extracts, in flavouring systems.  It includes a discussion of materials, such as enzyme modified stevia, which divide opinion.

Molecular Flavour Pairing of Foods & Drinks Flavourists have studied the molecular composition of food flavours since the early days of the industry. In this article, Danny Hodrien of F&F Projects explores the molecular basis of some traditional food pairings and proposes some new pairings, which are not quite so obvious.

The First FlavourTalk Exhibition and Conference in Singapore FlavourTalk, a two day event consisting of a flavour raw materials exhibition and conference, was held in Singapore in April 2015. The exhibition was the first of its kind in Asia and was a great success. It was attended by 153 people from 74 companies with over 20 countries represented. We list some of the most popular flavouring ingredients presented at the exhibition.

How is Growing Demand for Functional Foods Impacting Southeast Asia in 2015? As part of four key trends set to impact the Southeast Asia region, Mintel forecasts that the ‘Get Healthy’ trend is a key area that brands can exploit for commercial success. Mintel’s Jane Barnett explains why the coming year is key for brands in the region to showcase their expertise in this area.

Flavour Company Developments 2014-15 Acquisitions, investment in new facilities and collaborations announced by flavour and flavour ingredients companies in 2014-15 are reviewed in this article, which explores the different development strategies adopted.

Issue 13, March 2015…

Halal and its Regulatory Hurdles Tina Tan of Matrix Flavours and Fragrances explains why Muslims look for reassurance from government and Halal certification bodies in regulating the food and beverage industries and highlights the problems in developing a global, harmonised system for Halal.

Lactose Free Technologies are currently available to make milk, and therefore milk proteins, available to lactose intolerant individuals. Consumers who are buying dairy free alternatives to milk in the belief that they are better for you need to understand the nutritional value of milk.

Using Natures Catalysts to produce Flavouring Substances Exciting research is underway in the EU to identify new enzymes capable of synthesising natural flavours. However, the need to obtain approval for enzymes used in food in the EU may hold up the commercialisation of many of these novel enzymes.

Flavouring Properties of New Substances on the Union List – Part 5 The fifth instalment of our review of the flavouring properties and uses of newly notified flavouring substances added to the Union List features a number of sulphur compounds recently added to the list.

Sulphur Compounds from the Weurman Symposium One of the most striking themes at the Weurman Symposium last year was the number of flavour active sulphur compounds being discovered in a diverse range of food products. We review the properties of some of these novel compounds.

Flavour Patent Developments in 2014 Flavour Horizons review of patents published in 2014 has identified a surge in protection of novel sweetener formulations and the emergence of a number of kokumi patents published by key players in the flavour industry.

Issue 12, December 2014…

Flavour Horizons Launches FlavourTalk Singapore 2015. Flavour Horizons will be holding a two day raw materials exhibition and conference in Singapore on April 28-29 2015 at the Village Hotel Changi. We outline the programme.

What is the Difference between a Flavour Enhancer and a Flavour Modifier?After several attempts to produce a clear distinction between flavour enhancers and flavour modifiers, the European Commission has drawn up some informal guidance. We review the definitions of these ingredients and ask whether the Union List is being seen as a place to hide food additives to avoid the dreaded E number.

Stevia: the Market Opportunities … and Limitations. Market dynamics and the technical understanding of the properties of stevia have changed quite dramatically in the last two and a half years. We consider the opportunities for this sweetener in our products and the limitations to what it can deliver.

A Review of the Flavour and Flavour Ingredients Industries of Singapore and Malaysia. Flavour Horizons review of the specialist flavour and flavour ingredient producers in Singapore and Malaysia. We list producers and their specialisations and provide a flavour map of the region showing the distribution of companies across the Malay Peninsula.

Flavouring Properties of New Substances on the Union List – Part 4. The fourth instalment of our review of the flavouring properties and uses of newly notified flavouring substances added to the Union List includes a number of amides with interesting taste and taste modifying properties.

The Value of Milk. Milk is a complex food that has played an important part in the human diet for millennia.  It makes a substantial contribution to the intake of essential nutrients across all age groups. Despite this there are many misconceptions about its nutritional value and versatility.

Improve your concentration – update. We provide the latest performance data for a new, patented, low temperature evaporation process, known as evapeos®, previously described in issue 9. The process is gaining favour across the industry for liquid concentration whilst maintaining nutritional integrity.

Highlights from Food Matters Live, London. Food Matters Live, held at Excel, London on 18-20th November 2014, provided a unique, cross-industry platform addressing the relationship between food, health and nutrition. We discuss some of the flavour and taste highlights.

Issue 11, Autumn 2014…

Centres of Excellence: Monell Chemical Senses Center. We review the facilities and expertise available at the world’s only independent, non-profit, scientific institute entirely focused on research into the mechanisms and functions of taste and smell and their significance in human health and disease. We also look at some of the recent flavour-related research projects undertaken at the Monell Chemical Senses Center.

As sweet as sugar. Lactisole, which is used to produce a non-sweet sugar, is now available for use without sucrose and this offers a wide range of new application possibilities.

PAMs – Flavours that Help Combat Obesity by Enhancing the Sweet Taste of Sugars. Four of Senomyx’s positive allosteric modulators have been granted FEMA GRAS status in the US and two are included on the EU Union List of flavouring substances. We review their structures and properties.

Synthetic High Potency Sweeteners. We provide a comparison of the range of different sweeteners available together with information on regulation, properties and current use.

Sugar Replacement in Fruit Juices. Sugar has taken over from salt as the demon in our diet and fruit juices have come under fire for their high sugar content. Here we review the strategies being adopted to reduce sugar content in fruit juices.

Flavouring Properties of New Substances on the Union List – Part 3. Our listing of interesting newly notified flavour compounds on the Union List continues featuring a number of sulphur compounds. These are all supported by flavour companies intending to use them in flavourings in the European Union.

A review of the Indonesian flavour and essential oils industriesFlavour Horizons has analysed the flavour and essential oils industries in Indonesia. We list producers and their specialisations and provide a ‘flavour map of Indonesia’ showing the distribution of companies across the Republic.

Issue 10, Summer 2014…

Flavour Horizons Review: Mango Flavours. The Flavour Horizons annual review looked at mango flavours this year. Mango flavours from several suppliers were assessed in a model soft drink formulation. This article summarises the findings.

Patent Review: Bitterness Masking. Bitter masking technologies are useful for improving the palatability of food and beverage products and for masking any undesirable effects of ingredients and additives used in foodstuffs.  Here we examine some of the recent discoveries in bitter masking that have been protected by patents.

Vegetable Desserts. Recently there has been a resurgence of interest in vegetable desserts and treats. We investigate some of the new products in this area.

Introducing PAMs. This article explains how positive allosteric modulators work and how they are being used to enhance sweetness.

Flavouring Properties of New Substances on the Union List – Part 2. The review of some of the most interesting new flavouring substances on the Union List continues from Issue 9, highlighting the properties and patent status of these materials.

Chocolate Sets the Trend. We discuss why chocolate exemplifies all the top flavour trends.

Flavour Company Developments 2013-14. Flavour Horizons reviews the involvement of the leading flavour companies in acquisitions, mergers, expansion of plant and facilities as well as collaborative R&D agreements with third parties during the last year.

Issue 9, Spring 2014…

Nanotechnology for Flavour Delivery? The use of nanotechnology by the food flavour sector has yet to be fully explored but the advantageous properties of nanoparticles offer innovative opportunities to tackle flavour formulation, delivery and perception. Craig Duckham looks at potential applications for nanotechnology in delivering flavours and reviews flavour formulation, risk management and regulatory issues.

Flavouring Properties of New Substances on the Union List. The recent publication of flavouring substances on the Union List will have a significant impact on the food and flavour industry in the EU. Patented or protected flavouring substances will need to be disclosed if they are to continue in use. In this edition of Flavour Horizons we review the first 30 of these newly notified compounds.

Improve Your Concentration. A new, low energy evaporation technology has been developed and patented. This process can be used for concentration or solvent removal from aqueous solutions. We review the potential applications and advantages of this process.

Flavours from Food By-products: an Underexploited Resource? Large amounts of organic by-products arise during food production and processing operations. Not only is it expensive to dispose of by-product streams but it is also a waste of a potentially valuable resource. We review the current and emerging use of food by-products as sources of food flavours.

Fortifying Claims. The fortification of a food or beverage with vitamins and/or minerals can be a valuable route to product health claims which add value to a product and differentiate it in the marketplace.  We review how vitamins and minerals can be used to address a significant number of our principal health concerns.

Flavour Patent Developments in 2013. Flavour Horizons patent review for 2013 reveals the companies most active in flavour patenting and the numbers of different types of patent published, such as salt enhancers and bitter masking substances. We also review the evolving position on kokumi patents and their approval for use.

Issue 8, Winter 2013…

IMP and GMP – Health Ingredients or Unhealthy Food Additives? Flavour enhancers have had a bad press in recent years and as a result have been removed from many food products. We investigate the role of the nucleotides IMP and GMP in the diet as flavour enhancers and review the evidence for health benefits provided by these materials.

Fruit Top Notes: By-product or By Design. In this article we compare the value chain for fruit top notes extracted from fruit concentrate by-products with top notes produced from fruits as primary products using spinning cone technology.

Stable Isotope Reference Analysis – A New Proof of Provenance? We examine the growing potential for using Stable Isotope Reference Analysis (SIRA) as a method to establish the provenance of flavouring ingredients such as vanilla, herbs, spices, essential oils and extracts of natural materials from various regions of the world.

Brazilian Flavour Industry Expands to Meet Growing Demand. Flavour Horizons study of the Brazilian flavour industry has explored the activities of the major flavour companies in this region and investigated trends in flavours in the Brazilian market.

Food Ingredients Europe (FiE) 2013. We describe the latest commercial, technical and environmental developments in the food ingredients industry on show at FiE.

Flavorcon 2013, Atlantic City, NJ. Steve Pearce of Omega Ingredients Ltd, UK, gives us his impressions of this new event designed by flavourists for flavourists.

Issue 7, Autumn 2013…

Floral flavours. Using flowers in foods dates back thousands of years to the Greeks and the Romans. Today flowers and floral flavours are experiencing a revival, which is introducing some new, exotic flavour notes to everyday foods.

Re-discovering the health benefits of the pungent spices. This article discusses some of the latest peer reviewed research that has made some amazing discoveries about a number of the compounds present in some of the spices in our everyday diet.

How sweet is the future? We investigate developments in current natural high potency sweeteners and consider potential sources of these materials for the future.

Patent Review: salt reduction/salt enhancement. This article reviews some of the most recent patents that attempt to satisfy the growing demand for reduced salt food products.

White biotechnology in flavour production: microbial fermentation. Biotechnology offers great promise for production of some natural flavours, flavour enhancers and flavour precursors. We consider the latest developments in this field and assess the limitations.

IFT 2013: a visitor’s perspective. We review the highlights of this year’s IFT Annual Meeting & Food Expo® in Chicago in July, including the latest innovations in food science and technology.

Issue 6, Summer 2013…

Deadlines for EU Flavour Legislation. The clock is ticking for submissions for inclusion in the new Union List of flavourings and source materials. We review the deadlines for different types of flavouring materials to comply with the regulations and explain the pitfalls in meeting the requirements.

Safety of Thermal Process Flavourings – Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines. Thermal process flavourings can harbour dangerous compounds in the form of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA). A small but growing number of HAAs have been found to be human carcinogens and are among the most dangerous substances consumed in food. This article considers the evidence and the legislative position.

Flavour Horizons Review: Ginger Flavours. As ginger flavours have become increasingly popular recently we decided to evaluate a range of ginger flavours from different suppliers in this year’s flavour review.

Sweeteners: Natural or Artificial? The Answer is 50 Shades of Grey. We discuss natural and artificial labels for sweeteners and consider the range of products available as natural alternatives to sucrose.

Flavoured beers offer growth potential. Expanding markets for flavoured beers offer potential opportunities for the flavour industry. We explore the trends.

Flavour Company Innovations 2012-13. A review of the activities of flavour companies over the last year explores the development strategies of individual companies and reveals trends in acquisitions, joint ventures, investment in new facilities and collaborative agreements.

Issue 5, Spring 2013…

Enhancing the taste of salt. We investigate the use of peptides and the amino acid arginine in  salt reduction and salt taste enhancement technologies and suggest possible new development strategies.

Sodium reduction: are we missing a trick? The use of acids to enhance salty taste as a route to sodium reduction is rarely discussed. We explore the potential for this strategy.

Measuring flavour. We explore the trends in techniques and instrumentation for measuring flavour.

Naturally confusing – the labelling dilemma in the United States and the conflict with Europe. Natural and artificial flavours are defined in the Federal Register in the US but differ significantly from the new definitions in the EU. This article looks at these differences and also highlights the considerable consumer confusion over the term natural when applied to foods in the US which is leading to an avalanche of law suits.

Health benefits of antioxidants. Antioxidants in our foods are multifunctional; many play a role in flavour. We review how they interact with the body, consumer understanding of their role and their use to supplement foods.

Flavour patents 2012: China accelerates. Flavour Horizons has conducted a study on food and beverage flavour-related patents filed in 2012 and found that Chinese companies are increasingly active in this arena.

Issue 4, Winter 2012…

Centres of excellence: NIZO, Ede, the Netherlands. We review the skills, facilities and current research at NIZO, including micro-production of foods and beverages, genomics in flavour research, olfactometry, gustometry and salt reduction technologies.

The genetics of taste: recent developments and dietary implications. New studies have been extending the state of knowledge about the genetic control of taste. An improved understanding of this complex field will help food and flavour companies to design healthier, tastier food products in some cases targeted at distinct groups within the population.

Exploring the boundaries between flavour and health. Many flavour compounds extracted from plants have recently been shown to have health benefits as well. The implications of these discoveries could be highly significant for food and flavour companies if approval for health claims can be obtained from international authorities.

EU regulation of health claims for botanicals. We explore the current regulatory framework for botanical health claims in the EU and review how claims made for botanicals have fared to date. An appendix listing recent studies reporting health benefits for botanicals is also provided.

Health Ingredients Japan 3-5 October 2012. A review of some of the more interesting flavours with reported health benefits on show at this exhibition in Tokyo, including ginger, garlic, gymnema, capsiate and perilla.

Health Ingredients Europe 13-15 November 2012. An analysis of trends in health ingredients on show at the Frankfurt exhibition including colours, sweeteners, fruits, vegetables, vitamins, and herbs and spices as well as identification of new foods on offer.

Issue 3, Autumn 2012…

Converting thermal process flavours into flavouring preparations. Thermal process flavours cannot be natural in Europe but there is a great demand for natural flavours, especially meat and savoury flavours derived from the Maillard reaction. Flavouring preparations are natural by definition and this article looks at the ground rules, the problems and pitfalls in converting thermal process flavours into flavouring preparations.

Clean labels: a consequence of negative marketing. Consumers are increasingly expecting foods to provide nutrients and health benefits naturally. We investigate the trend towards clean labels and how industry is living with the unintended consequences of marketeers’ negative product claims.

Kokumi Part II – a new era of discovery. Over the last few years some quite remarkable discoveries have been made about human sensory perception and the identification of molecules that influence our appreciation of the taste and quality of food. This article is the second in the series that explores the kokumi sensation looking at compounds that initiate the effect, how they are formed and what we know about their mechanism of action on the palate.

Sustainable vanilla – the role of flavour companies. A combination of natural disaster and political instability has threatened the availability of vanilla causing scarcity and considerable price volatility in recent years. We investigate how leading flavour companies are contributing to sustainable vanilla farming.

Salt: a question of taste? Sodium ions play a diverse and important role in many physiological processes but are we still consuming too much salt? We review progress towards meeting international guidelines, point to formulation options and identify the most challenging product sectors.

Review of flavour and flavour ingredient manufacturers in India. Flavour Horizons has carried out an analysis of the flavour and flavour ingredient manufacturers in India. We provide a listing of manufacturers including their websites and specialisations together with a ‘flavour map of India’ showing their distribution across the subcontinent.

Issue 2, Summer 2012…

Kokumi – the Emperor’s new clothes or molecules that modify flavour? Kokumi is a new word entering the English language to sit alongside umami. But what is it? Is it important to flavour companies or just a passing gimmick?

A number of global food and flavour companies are treating it seriously by registering a series of patents the most recent being in April 2012. We review the phenomenon and identifiy the chemical compounds that purport to produce the kokumi sensation on the palate, how they function and how they are produced.

Flavour Horizons Review: chocolate flavours revisited We look at changes in chocolate flavours over the last 30 years and assess chocolate/cocoa samples provided by exhibitors at Table Talk Amsterdam 2012 to investigate whether we are any closer to the holy grail of a quality chocolate flavour.

Centres of excellence in flavour science: Reading University, UK The specialist flavour research group at Reading University has a track record of working with the food and flavour industry. We look at key research projects and interests including collaborations with celebrity chef, Heston Blumenthal, on umami flavour in tomatoes and umami in the diets of older people as well as work on acrylamide formation and health benefits of flavour compounds.

The H+ bomb: a taste explosion! The acid profile of beverages, yoghurts and many sweet products is critical for flavour, freshness and quality. This article describes the flavour profile and physical properties of permitted acids and provides valuable guidance, hints and tips for product developers working with fruit juices, and beverages.

Patent Review: enhancing or modifying the taste of salt The health implications of consuming too much salt is high on the agenda of politicians who are applying significant pressure on the food industry to develop strategies to reduce the level of salt in food products.

As there is no substitute for salt, it becomes a case of educating the palate of consumers to accept less salt or tricking the palate into thinking that there is more salt present than there actually is. This article summarises the patents filed in 2011 featuring new approaches and new ingredient formulations that claim to be capable of reducing the salt content of consumer products by up to 50%.

Frutarom on the march Frutarom is pursuing a rapid growth strategy through acquisition and predicts a gradual reduction in the number of players in the flavour market.

Issue 1, Spring 2012…

  • Flavour precursors and Shrödinger’s cat
  • Does Kerry Lead the Flavour Market?
  • Stevia: the market opportunities
  • A smoking gun
  • 25 years of ingredient innovation
  • Japan leads the field on flavour patents in 2011